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BOLD 207 ODEN MIDTERM

Everyone who is arrogant in heart is an abomination to the Lord; be assured, he will not go unpunished.
Synthetic Parallelism

A man of wrath stirs up strife, and one given to anger causes much transgression.
Synonymous Parallelism

A tranquil heart gives life to the flesh, envy makes the bones rot.
Antithetical Parallelism

Robert Lowth is credited with identifying three main types of parallelism in Hebrew poetry.
True

James Kugel disagreed with James Lowth, because Kugel did not think that parallelism was important for understanding Hebrew poetry.
False

According to Lowth, the three primary types of Hebrew parallelism are: lexical, grammatical and semantic.
False

Adele Berlin believes that there are two marks of Hebrew poetry: parallelism and terseness.
True

James Kugel’s theory that it is not possible to distinguish Hebrew prose from Hebrew poetry is widely accepted by biblical scholars.
False

A primary difference between biblical and Ugaritic poetry is that biblical poetry alludes to stories already known rather than tell them through narrative verse and dialogue, while Ugaritic poetry told long stories in narrative verse.
True

The fourth-century Christian leader Athanasius said that while most Scripture speaks to us, the Psalms speak for us
True

Herrmann Gunkel was an influential scholar who emphasized studying individual psalms according to their literary types
True

Gunkel saw two major categories of Psalms: Hymns and Laments
True

Hymns are most common type of Psalms
False

All scholars accept Mowinckel’s proposal that the Hebrew phrase “Yahweh malak” refers to an enthronement.
False

The heading of the Psalms were probably fixed (finalized) as part of the text of Psalms prior to the second century BCE.
False

The psalms having the heading “of David” were all composed by King David.
False

The book of Psalms is divided up into five books by four doxologies.
True

Canonical criticism encouraged reading the Psalms holistically, rather than as a collection of independent, diverse poems.
True

In the ancient Near East, both gods and kings were spoken of as shepherds of their people.
True

The term selah only appears at the beginning of a verse.
False

Few current scholars accept S. Mowinckel’s theory of an annual ritual festival or act of enthronement related to certain Psalms that celebrate Yahweh’s kingship.
True

Phonological parallelism refers to the occurrence of sound pairs in two “lines” of Hebrew poetry.
True

The three books of the Hebrew Bible most commonly called Wisdom Literature are Job, Proverbs and Ecclesiastes.
True

The Hebrew root hkm means “wisdom.”
True

Wisdom literature in the Hebrew Bible is humanistic and experiential and missing much of what is normally considered distinctively Israelite.
True

Wisdom refers to physical skills and intellectual skills.
True

Wisdom traditions in Ancient Israel were both imported from surrounding cultures and “home-grown.
True

The Words of Ahiqar is an Egyptian Wisdom text.
False

The Song of the Harper is a type of Mesopotamian protest literature
False

For much of the twentieth century there was a general scholarly consensus that wisdom literature in Israel was closely connected with the royal court.
True

The Hebrew term translated as proverb mashal designates a definite literary form.
False

All of the proverbs in Proverbs are attributed to Solomon.
False

The proverbs in Proverbs sometimes contradict each other
True

How many sections are generally thought to comprise Proverbs 1-9
10

Personification and Hypostasis both have the same meaning
False

“Fearing Yahweh” includes loyalty to and love for Yahweh, shown through obedience to his commands
True

In the prose sections of Job, there are three sections of speeches.
True

Job’s three friends are Bildad, Zophar and Eliphaz.
True

The prologue and epilogue of Job are written in prose.
True

The word “Satan” is a name for the devil in the book of Job.
False

The last speeches in the book of Job are made by Elihu.
False

Elihu’s speeches are the most elegantly written Hebrew poetry in the book.
False

When God speaks to Job, Job finally repents and and acknowledges that his friends are right.
False

The epilogue of Job presupposes both the speeches and the prologue.
True

Ezekiel 14:12-20 mentions the Jewish prophet and wise man Daniel, along with Noah and Job.
False

Most scholars believe that the speeches of Elihu were not an original part of the book of Job.
True

Aurality
The idea that a poem, as a work of literature, is meant to be heard

Colon
The basic unit of Hebrew poetry consisting of a terse line typically containing a complete clause

Canon
A word that originally meant “reed” or “measure” and is used to describe documents (books) that are recognized as inspired and authoritative

Canonization
This process involves an orientation to society or a specific discipline

Meter
The accent or pattern of speech in a poem, usually consisting of a repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables

Personification
the attribution of human characteristics to something non human

Paronomasia
A pun based on similar sounds between two different words

Merismus
the use of extremes to express the whole (God loves you from the depths of the seas to the peaks of the mountains)

Acrostic
The first letter in each line is a successive letter in the Hebrew alphabet

Chiasm
a literary structure based on inverted symmetry (AB-BA ..or.. God is good, all the time- all the time, God is good

He who gathers in summer is a prudent son, but he who sleeps in harvest is a son who brings shame.
Antithetical parallelism

What is the close semantic and rhythmic relationship that exists between lines of Hebrew poetry
Parallelism

What is the Hebrew title for the book of Psalms?
tehillim

What was the name of the mother of the gods of Ugarit?
Asherah

What was the name of the father of the gods of Ugarit?
El

Which of the following was the Divine Warrior who defeated Sea and Death at Ugarit?
Ba’al

How many books does Psalms contain? (divisions)
5

Which 8th century king of Judah commanded that the songs of David and Asaph be sung?
Hezekiah

According to your textbook, the German scholar who laid the foundation for the classification of the Psalms was Hermann Strauss.
False

The alphabet discovered at Ugarit was written in a cuneiform script.
True

A song of trust may stand as an independent psalm, or appear in a lament.
True

According to your textbook, psalms are attributed to all of the the following in the book Psalms: David, Asaph, the sons of Korah, Ethan, Moses, Solomon, Heman.
True

There are sound reasons to date the book of Job to time of the Patriarchs.
False

Job is set to the east of Israel, east of the Jordan river.
True

Several ancient non-Israelite texts have some similarity to Job.
True

Job is directly dependent on Babylonian and Sumerian works, but only indirectly related to Egyptian writings.
False

Many scholars believe that the theology of the epilogue of Job is in tension with the theology of the rest of the book.
True

The name of the devil in Job is Satan.
False

Scholars agree that it is obvious that the message of Job is about the dilemma of the suffering of the righteous.
False

Reader-response approaches place the locus of meaning in a text in the reader.
True

In your text book, Qoheleth refers to the person whose teaching is preserved in the book of Ecclesiastes.
True

The title of the book Ecclesiastes comes from the Greek translation of the Hebrew word qoheleth.
True

According to Lucas, the book of Ecclesiastes was written by a person exploring the search for life’s meaning through the persona of Solomon, king of Israel.
True

Most scholars believe that the book of Ecclesiastes was originally written in Aramaic.
False

Most scholars believe the date of the book Ecclesiastes was in the post-exilic period
True

The words of Qoheleth are sometimes contradictory.
True

The book of Ecclesiastes has a clear literary structure
False

In the Ancient Near East it was a sign of wisdom to know the proper times of things.
True

Qoheleth says that death comes to all but it is not the definitive end.
False

Ecclesiastes is similar in content to the Harper’s Songs of ancient Egypt.
True

The Hebrew word hevel (or hebel) has a wide range of meanings, but is often translated as “vanity.”
True

Ecclesiastes briefly mentions the traditional Hebrew teaching of the Exodus.
False

Qoheleth’s attitude toward death leads him to value life for as long as it lasts.
True

The title Song of Songs is an expression that means “the best song.”
True

Traditionally, the Song of Songs has been attributed to Solomon, with the understanding that Solomon was the song’s author.
True

In Jewish tradition, the song of Songs is read during the Feast of Passover in the fall.
False (spring)

Most modern scholars think that Solomon is not likely the author of the Song of Songs.
True

Song of Songs has both early and late linguistic features.
True

The closest extra-biblical links to Song of Songs are found in Tamil love poetry.
False

A wasf is a type of poetry in which a lover’s body is described in sensual language from head to toe (or vice versa).
True

Song of Songs contains poetic speeches by a woman about her beloved.
True

Song of Songs contains poetic speeches by a man about his beloved.
True

According to Lucas, Song of Songs contains poetic speech spoken by a chorus.
True

Allegorical interpretation of the Song of Songs understands the symbolic, allusive poetry in the book has a deeper, spiritual meaning and holds that the book is about God’s love for his people.
True

Literal interpretation of Song of Songs sees it as love poems shared by (human) lovers.
True

The nature imagery in Song of Songs may be an allusion to the Garden of Eden story in Genesis 2-3.
True

Write the five books of the Bible often called the “books of poetry” or Wisdom Literature.
Psalms

Proverbs

Job

Ecclesiastes

Song of Songs

Binah
understanding

Da’at
knowledge

‘esah
planning

hokmah
wisdom

What are the speeches of Lady Wisdom in Proverbs ch.s 1-9 sometimes called?
Pillars

What is the name of the collection of Egyptian Instructions that seem to have direct parallel to Proverbs 22:17-24:22?
Instruction of Amenemope

What king of Judah employed his men to copy some of the proverbs of Solomon?
Hezekiah

According to 1 Kings, how many proverbs did Solomon speak?
3000

Proverbs 1:1-9:18
“The Proverbs of Solomon, son of David, King of Israel”

10:1-22:16
The Proverbs of Solomon

22:17-24:22
“Words of the Sages”

24:23-34
These are also by the Sages

25:1-29:27
“These too are proverbs of Solomon , which men of King Hezekiah of Judah copied”

30:1-14
“the words of Agur”

30:15-33
“Numerical Epigrams”

31:1-9
“The words of Lemuel”

31:10-31
The Woman of Strength

What form of Proverb is typically a single proverb?
Aphorism

Ba’ar
brute

hasar leb
empty-headed

‘iwwelet
perverse fool

kesilut
sloth

lason
insolence

petayyut
naivete

What are the speeches of Lady Wisdom in Proverbs ch.s 1-9 sometimes called?
pillars

What form of Proverb expands upon a continuous theme?
Narrative

Proverbs is a collection of wise-sayings from the royal court. What word is used to describe the idea that Proverbs sayings were collected over a long period of time by many people?
Anthology

Where is the book of Job set?
Uz

What biblical time period best describes the setting of the book Job?
Patriarchal

The plot of the prologue of Job begins at a meeting of the Divine Council. Which answer below best describes the Divine Council in Job 1-2?
The LORD and the sons of God

What is the title for the accuser who takes part in the Divine Council meetings of Job 1-2?
hassatan

What is the term used to describe the principle by which Job’s friends accuse him or wrongdoing?
Retribution Theology

Which speaker (other than Job) does God mention by name at the end of the book?
Eliphaz

Prologue
1-2

Job’s Lament
3

Job’s Dialogues with friends
4-27

Wisdom Interlude
28

God’s Interrogation
38-41

Epilogue
42:7-17

Eliphaz was what gentilic?
Temanite

Bildad
Shuhite

Zophar
Naamathite

Which of the following ancient texts is NOT compared to Job in your textbook?
The Egyptian Theodicy

There are no firm grounds on which to date the book of Job with any certainty.
True

A wasf is a type of poetry includes a sensual description of the lover’s body from head to toe.
True

In part, Qohelet responds to the book of Proverbs and traditional wisdom. What tenet of Proverbs does Qohelet observe to be inconsistent, thus prompting qoheleth’s to observe that “all is meaningless”?
Retribution Theology

The voice of what speaker is heard in Eccliesiastes 12:9-14
frame narrator

Ecclesiastes 1:3-11
Intro

3
What Remains?

5:1-6:9
How does one live in the world!?!??

6:10-8:17
What is Good for Humans?

11:7-12:8
Postscript: Enjoy the Futility!

12:9-14
Epilogue

What is the branch of philosophy concerning itself with developing a theory of knowledge, as in “How one knows something” or “What one may know”?
Epistemology

In part, Qohelet responds to the book of Proverbs and traditional wisdom. What tenet of Proverbs does Qohelet observe to be inconsistent, thus rendering the meaningfulness of an ordered universe “meaningless”?
Retribution Theology

What Greek philosopher mentioned in class taught the principle of hedonism, “eat, drink, and be merry”?
Epicurus

What music act made the song “Turn and Turn and Turn,” based on Ecclesiastes 3, a hit single with their recording of it in 1965?
The Byrds

What time period is typically suggested for the writing of Ecclesiastes?
Persian

According to Ecclesiastes 1:1, whose words are recorded in Ecclesiastes?
Qohelet’s

What Hebrew term means “profit” or “remain”?
yitron

hebel
vapor

riq
empty

sheqer
deceit

lo’ leho ‘iyl
worthless

tsel
shadow

r ut ruah
striving after wind

heleq
portion

tob
good

Which of the following ancient Near Eastern texts is likely referred to in the book of Ecclesiastes?
Gilgamesh

Match the scholar(s) with the understanding of hebel in Ecclesiastes that the scholar(s) holds.
-enigma
Bartholomew and O’Dowd

Illusory
Seybold

absurdity
Fox

illusory futility
Oden (following Sneed

What ancient Northwest Semitic inscription is a type of calendar that listed the agricultural seasons of the year?
Gezer Calendar

Match the imagery in the Song of Songs with its associated referent or the idea which it evokes.
Flora
female sexuality

fauna
male sexuality

garden
eden

wine
erotic banquet

What book of the Torah provides that a young man who has taken a wife is exempt from military or forced public duty for a year?
Deuteronomy

What type of poetry includes a sensual description of the lover’s body from head to toe?
wasf

Match the early Christian interpreter with the method of interpretation each employed for reading Song of Songs

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Theodore of Mopsuestia

Literal

Origen of Alexandria
Allegorical

How many “sensual descriptions of the male’s body from head to toe” appear in Song of Songs?
1

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